REFERENCES - <Background of Research and Development>
 Berd, D., Maguire, H.C., Jr., and Mastrangelo, M.J. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to autologous melanoma cells and regression of metastases after treatment with a melanoma cell vaccine preceded by cyclophosphamide. Cancer Res. 46: 2572-2577, 1986.
 Berd, D., Maguire, H.C., Jr., McCue, P. and Mastrangelo, M.J. Treatment of metastatic melanoma with an autologous tumor-cell vaccine: Clinical and immunologic results in 64 patients. J. Clin. Oncol., 8: 1858-1867, 1990.
 Livingston, P.O., Albino, A.P., Chung, T.J., Real, F.X., Houghton, A.N., Oettgen, H.F. and Old, L.J. Serological response of melanoma patients to vaccines prepared from VSV lysates of autologous and allogeneic cultured melanoma cells. Cancer, 55: 713-720, 1985.
 McCune, C.S., O'Donnell, R.W., Marquis, D.M. and Sahasrabudhe, D.M. Renal cell carcinoma treated by vaccines for active specific immunotherapy: correlation of survival with skin testing by autologous tumor cells. Cancer. Immunol. Immunother. 32: 62-66, 1990.
 Soiffer, R., Lynch, T., Mihm, M., Jung, K., Rhuda, C., Schmollinger, J.C, Hodi, F.S., Liebster, L., Lam, P., Mentzer, S., Singer, S., Tanabe, K.K., Cosimi, A.B., Duda, R., Sober, A., Bhan, A., Daley, J., Neuberg, D., Parry, G., Rokovich, J., Richards, L., Drayer, J., Berns, A., Clift, S., Cohen, L.K., Mulligan, R.C. and Dranoff. G. Vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 13141-13146, 1998.
 Johnston, D. and Bystryn, J.C. Effect of cell wall skeleton and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant on the immunogenicity of a murine B16 melanoma vaccine. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 83: 1240-1245, 1991.
 Powles, R.L., Russell, J.A., Selby, P.J., Prentice, H.G., Jones, D.R., McElwain, T.J. and Alexander, P. Maintenance of remission in acute myelogenous leukaemia by a mixture of B.C.G. and irradiated leukaemia cells. Lancet 2: 1107-1110, 1977.
 Coutelle, C., Douar, A.M., Colledge, W.H. and Froster, U. The challenge of fetal gene therapy. Nat. Med. 1: 864-866, 1995.
 Huang, L. and Li, S. Liposomal gene delivery: a complex package. Nat. Biotechnol.
 Protti, M.P. and Bellone, M. Immunotherapy: natural versus synthetic peptides. Immunol. Today 19: 98-98, 1998.
 Mayordomo, J.I., Zorina, T., Storkus, W.J., Zitvogel, L., Celluzzi, C., Falo, L.D., Melief, C.J., Ildstad, S.T., Kast, W.M., Deleo, A.B. and Lotze, M.T. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with synthetic tumour peptides elicit protective and therapeutic antitumour immunity. Nat. Med. 1: 1297-1302, 1995.
 Gong, J., Chen, D., Kashiwaba, M. and Kufe, D. Induction of antitumor activity by immunization with fusions of dendritic and carcinoma cells. Nat. Med. 3: 558-561, 1997.
 Guo, Y., Wu, M., Chen, H., Wang, X., Liu, G., Li, G., Ma, J. and Sy, M. S. Effective tumor vaccine generated by fusion of hepatoma cells with activated B cells. Science
 Pardoll, D.M. Cancer vaccines. Nat. Med. vaccine suppl. 4: 525-531, 1998.
 Fisher, R.I., Coltman, C.A., Jr., Doroshow, J.H., Rayner, A.A., Hawkins, M.J., Mier, J.W., Wiernik, P., McMannis, J.D., Weiss, G.R., Margolin, K.A., Gemlo, B.T., Hoth, D.F., Parkinson, D.R. and Paietta, E. Metastatic renal cancer treated with interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells - a phase II clinical trial. Ann. Intern. Med.
 Holladay, F.P., Heitz, T. and Wood, G.W. Antitumor activity against established intracerebral gliomas exhibited by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but not by lymphokine-activated killer cells. J. Neurosurg. 77: 757-762, 1992.
 Ikarashi, H., Fujita, K., Takakuwa, K., Kodama, S., Tokunaga, A., Takahashi, T. and Tanaka, K. Immunomodulation in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer after adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Cancer Res. 54: 190-196, 1994.
 Ioannides, C.G. and Whiteside, T. T cell recognition of human tumors: Implications for molecular immunotherapy of cancer. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 66: 91-106, 1993.
 Kawakami, Y., Eliyahu, S., Delgado, C.H., Robbins, P.F., Sakaguchi, K., Appella, E., Yannelli, J.R., Adema, G.J., Miki, T. and Rosenberg, S.A. Identification of a human melanoma antigen recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes associated with in vivo tumor rejection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 6458-6462, 1994.
 Monaco, J.J. A molecular model of MHC class-I-restricted antigen processing. Immunol. Today 13: 173-179, 1992.
 Rosenberg, S.A., Aebersold, P., Cornetta, K., Kasid, A., Morgan, R.A., Moen, R., Karson, E.M., Lotze, M.T., Yang, J.C., Topalian, S.L., Merino, M.J., Culver, K., Miller, A.D., Blaese, R.M. and Anderson, W.F. Gene transfer into humans-immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction. N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 570-578, 1990.
 Rosenberg, S.A., Lotze, M.T., Muul, L.M., Chang, A.E., Avis, F.P., Leitman, S., Linehan, W.N., Robertson, C.N., Lee, R.E., Rubin, J.T., Seipp, C.A., Simpson, C.G. and White, D.E. A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 889-897, 1987.
 Slingluff, C.L., Cox, A.L., Stover, J.M.J., Moore, M.M., Hunt, D.F. and Engelhard, V.H. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to autologous human squamous cell cancer of the lung: epitope reconstitution with peptides extracted from HLA-Aw68. Cancer Res.
 Tjoa, B.A. and Kranz, D.M. Generation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to a self-peptide/class I complex: a model for peptide-mediated tumor rejection. Cancer Res.
 Tsurushima, H., Liu, S.Q., Tuboi, K., Matsumura, A., Yoshii, Y., Nose, T., Saijo, K. and Ohno, T. Reduction of end-stage malignant glioma by injection with autologous cytotoxic T lymphosytes, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90: 536-545, 1999.
 Tsurushima, H., Liu, S.Q., Tsuboi, K., Yoshii, Y., Nose, T. and Ohno, T. Induction of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes against minced tissues of glioblastoma multiforme.
 Liu, S.Q., Saijo, K., Todoroki, T. and Ohno, T. Induction of human autologous cytoyoxic T lymphocytes on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumour sections. Nat. Med. 1: 267-271, 1995.
 Liu, S.Q., Shiraiwa, H., Kawai, K., Hayashi, H., Akaza, H., Kim, B.S., Oki, A., Nishida, M., Kubo, T., Hashizaki, K., Saijo, K. and Ohno, T. Tumor-specific autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes from tissue section. Nat. Med., 2: 1283-1283, 1996.
 Horiuchi, K., Tsurushima, H., Kim, B.S., Liu, S.Q., Saijo, K., Nukiwa, T., Mastumura, M. and Ohno, T. Expansion of human autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes on fixed target tumor cells. Cytotechnology 26: 119-124, 1998.
 Kim, C., Matsumura, M., Saijo, K. and Ohno, T. In vitro induction of HLA-A2402-restricted and carcinoembryonic-antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes on fixed autologous peripheral blood cells. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 47: 90-96, 1998.
 Kim, C.H., Todoroki, T., Matsumura, M., and Ohno, T. Eligibility of antigenic-peptide pre-loaded and fixed adhesive pripheral blood cells for induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes fro cancer patients with elevated serum CEA levels. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 126: 383-390, 2000